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Storyboards (DI-SESS-81526B)

A storyboard is an excellent tool for planning a production and obtaining production approvals. Develop storyboards in a word document, database, or in a special purpose storyboarding tool. Storyboards for interactive multimedia instruction, are visual representations of the layout of data on the screen.

Storyboard design principles

Consider a number of general IMI design principles when developing the IMI storyboards. Examples are:

  1. User friendliness.
  2. Menu-driven design.
  3. Browsing alternatives.
  4. Help functions.
  5. Record tracking.
  6. Navigation.
  7. Impact of type of input devices.
  8. User messages.
  9. Cues.

Additional storyboard data required for IMI products as follows:

  1. Detailed computer programming instructions for interactivity, branching, and courseware performance.
  2. Description of a shot to identify the visual image displayed i.e., still, motion, and sequence. Provide simulation sequence number for each shot in the order that the video will be presented.
  3. Special effects (e.g., animation, rollovers, delayed reveals, highlight, video, avatars, audio, and holograms).
  4. Transitions such as wipe, dissolve, or fade to black.
  5. Words or text displayed as a visual.
  6. Description of animation, video, audio or simulation.
  7. Test item data such as stem text, distracters, feedback, and remediation plan.

Sample Storyboards

Level 1

Level 1 - examples include watching and reacting to a video, listening to audio, and reviewing an instructional slide presentation. This level provides limited control of navigation and pacing as the presentation is program driven.

Linear interactivity (reactive pacing) refers to functionality that allows the student to move forwards or backwards through a predetermined linear sequence of the content.

Figure 1 Example linear interactivity

Figure 1 Example linear interactivity: This image provides an introduction, usually has a video to watch or a still image with audio.
(View Larger Example.)

Hierarchical interactivity (reactive navigation) provides the student with a predefined set of options from which the student can select a specific path or structure of accessing the content. The most common example of this interaction is the main menu where the student returns to select another option.

Support interactivity (reactive inquiry) involves providing the student with a range of help options and messages, some of which can be very simple and others quite complex: may include both generalized and context-sensitive support.

Level 2

Level 2 limited participation based on instructional cues. The student interacts with objects on the screen, such as point and click to open information, rollover objects (graphical images) to reveal information, drag and drop objects to construct diagrams, maps, diagnostics, and puzzles.

Object interactivity (proactive inquiry) refers to an IMI program in which objects (buttons, people, things, or other metaphors) are activated by using a mouse or other pointing device. Clicking usually generates a form of audiovisual response. The functionality of such objects depends on previous objects encountered, previous encounters with the current object, or previous instructional performance.

Figure 2 Example object interactivity

Figure 2 Example object interactivity of hotspot with corresponding pop-up window.
(View Larger Example.)

Construct interactivity is an extension of update interactivity and requires the creation of an environment in which the student is required to manipulate component objects to achieve specific goals. Unless the construction was completed in the correct sequence, the task could not be completed.

Figure 3 Example construct interactivity

Figure 3 Example construct interactivity: Re-sequence into the proper order to advance.
(View Larger Example.)

Update interactivity relates to components of the program that initiate a dialogue between the student and the computer-generated content. The program generates questions or problems to which the student must respond, either from a database or as a function of individual performance levels. The instructional rigor will determine the extent to which the update or feedback provides a meaningful response to the student.

Figure 4 Update interactivity

Figure 4 Example of Update interactivity - usually found with test item banking but could be used any time a dialog should be used.
(View Larger Example.)

Level 3

Level 3 complex participation - simulations depicting diagnostic procedures, and simulations for troubleshooting; decision-making allow students to make judgment calls and then follow appropriate branches for feedback and remediation; chemical and biological reactions requiring the student to respond to simulated events triggered by decisions made by the student. The student controls the learning experience by responding to instructional cues. The student is encouraged to branch, make decisions, alter paths, and receives constructive feedback.

Reflective interactivity (proactive elaboration) refers to situations when a response from the student is requested to prompts or questions from the courseware. Reflective interactivity allows the student to compare their response and make their own judgment as to its accuracy or correctness.

Figure 5 Example of reflective interactivity

Figure 5 Example of reflective interactivity: this offers the student a chance to reflect on their choices based on the scenario. No right or wrong answers, just a chance to think and integrate personal values, experiences. (View Larger Example.)

Figure 6 Example of reflective interactivity

Figure 6 Interactive video provides another example of reflective interactivity.
(View Larger Example.)

Simulated interactivity extends the role of the student to that of a controller or operator, where individual selections determine the training sequence. The simulation and construct interactivity are closely linked and may require the student to complete a specific sequence of tasks before a suitable update can be generated. The interaction sequence can be varied according to the specific instructional strategy required or may be consequential where the actions of the student generate an update which mimics the actual operation or process being simulated.

Figure 7 Simple simulations

Figure 7 Simple simulations - the learner can control the image on the screen to perform sequential procedures. The learner would have to interpret the results without instructional cues.
(View Larger Example.)

Level 4

Level 4 real time participation - gaming, high-level decision-making, and diagnosis of problems with resulting real-life consequences allow the student an opportunity to learn from mistakes. Level 4 offers discovery, reflection, exploration, judgment, and closure. Real-life scenarios with computer-generated situations include personal conflict, battlefield confrontation, interviewing and interrogation skills, and other job-related skills. The student controls the learning experience in the same way learning is experienced in real-life.

Hyperlinked interactivity (proactive navigation) allows the student to travel at will through a knowledge base. Linked information can provide a means to present problems which are solved by correctly navigating through the "maze" of information.

Figure 8 Hyperlinked interactivity

Figure 8 Hyperlinked interactivity - clicking each colored area reveals information to help in problem solving. No sequence or instructional cues are provided.
(View Larger Example.)

Non-immersive contextual interactivity (often called immersive training for DL) combines and extends various types of interactivity into a complete virtual training environment in which the student is able to work in a meaningful, job-related context. Students are transported into a micro-world that models their existing work environment, and the tasks they undertake reflect those of the work experience.

Figure 9 Non-immersive contextual interactivity

Figure 9 Non-immersive contextual interactivity – the learner is placed in a virtual training environment to make decisions without any instructional cues. Remediation is after completion of the scenario. Navigation uses the first person shooter mode with direction following a pointer.
(View Larger Example.)

Page Last Updated: 10/29/2015 12:00:41 PM